Como a ideologia do empreendedorismo – também ensinada aos alunos – está drenando recursos públicos para empresas de tecnologia e determinando a agenda de pesquisa em ciência e tecnologia.
In the postwar university, faculty operated in Fordist frames, generally producing students with prefabricated degrees designed for the benefit of various industries, to build sustained economic growth and widespread material advancement for the United States upon graduation. Under that model, in addition to teaching, many faculty also conducted process-oriented research, largely for disciplinary or professional interests, or for government and military contracts on a grant-by-grant, piecemeal basis, with minimal interference or oversight.
But that model is changing. A key catalyst was the 1980 Bayh–Dole Act. The act changed the de facto ownership of inventions created by university researchers with federal funds. Previously, federally funded contracts and grants obliged researchers to disclose inventions and relinquish patent rights to the US government and its taxpayers. The Bayh–Dole Act changed all that by giving schools, small businesses, and nonprofits the right to patent their inventions exclusively for the benefit of their respective institutions, and to license student and faculty inventions.
In other words, US patent law was radically altered to encourage universities to claim intellectual ownership of potentially profitable research, to license it, and to develop, build, and market inventions for the sake of profit.
Since then, at many research universities the model for teaching and research faculty has shifted to something more closely resembling a Toyotist, or just-in-time structure. The university now communicates and coordinates in near–real time with science, tech, and venture capital markets through its centers and executives. Universities actively respond to the flow of industry demand, in the same way that an assembly line is programmed to respond to real-time demand for parts, adapting to industry’s shifting preferences for the kinds of innovation it desires.